Participants attempting to ‘game the system’ have been a reality of (adult) remote research for years. Children Helping Science has remained relatively free of this issue because of (a) the higher barrier for participation - only families with children are invited to participate, and families have to create an account before starting a study and (b) the stronger verification methods we use - studies that use webcam video to analyze the central data also document that a family with a child of roughly the expected age is present.
As our platform has grown, it has become a more attractive target for fake participants. The Children Helping Science strategy is that “totally fake participants” (e.g., someone who is participating in a child study without a child) should have a 0% success rate in receiving compensation. Importantly, even a low success rate (e.g., 5%) could encourage more fake participation, especially since the motivation for some people is not just profit but also just the challenge and satisfaction of successfully hacking a system.
We know that there are some types of fraud that are harder to detect, but we should have a 100% success rate for things like an adult doing studies without having any child at all. Likewise, participants who are participating in bad faith (not just confused) by doing things like creating multiple accounts, using the same child to stand in for multiple ‘siblings’ of different ages, etc. should have near-zero success, because a vigilant researcher community that is alert to these cases will tend to result in discovering and preventing more subtle kinds of bad behavior.
We recognize that this policy will require some researchers to amend their IRB protocols. However, we are confident this is the right policy because of (a) the broad benefits to the Lookit/CHS community overall in reducing fake participants, and (b) the direct benefits to the studies that are otherwise open to lots of fake participants without implementing video verification. You will be the biggest beneficiary of making sure your own studies are not full of fake data!
The CHS philosophy on scammers and bad-faith participation in studies¶
Monitoring for potential fraud on CHS is a tricky balance, between preventing scammers from finding a foothold and maintaining a central value of the platform - creating a welcoming environment for families of all kinds, including those who don’t already know the norms for participating in studies, and who may have a wide variety of technical challenges. By the numbers, confused families are significantly more common than scammer participants.
As an open community resource, Children Helping Science depends on researchers to do their part to maintain the high quality of both participant experiences and research quality that we have enjoyed together over the past several years.
As researchers using CHS, it is your responsibility to treat participating families with respect and an assumption of good faith, and to maintain lab practices that are alert to the possibility of scammers and prevent giving payments to people who are participating in bad faith.
The staff of Children Helping Science is working hard to contain the impact of fake participants, whose behavior is sometimes most evident over multiple studies across multiple labs. Doing this depends on researchers following the steps described on the rest of this page.
Video verification for paid studies¶
Beginning in December 2023, studies are required to implement a visual check that study participants are acting in good faith (i.e. that a child of the correct age is present and the family is attempting to participate in the study as designed) prior to compensating them. This policy applies to both internal and external studies.
This is being required because we have a small number of fraudulent participants who make many accounts and try to get paid over and over again. Our participant pool is extremely high quality, with the vast majority representing real families who are truthful about their information and working hard to participate to the best of their abilities.
Keeping it this way by keeping bad-faith participants out of your datasets is a shared responsibility, and studies that don’t screen their participants teach the scammers that they can get paid by lying about their information on CHS!
The goal of this requirement is to ensure independent confirmation that the family is being basically truthful about their children’s information, beyond just whatever they chose to input when creating their account. If you can’t or don’t want to use the procedures described below, you are very welcome to propose another method for verifying good-faith participation! Please ask any questions you might have about this on Slack.
Option 1: Don’t pay participants¶
Studies that don’t provide monetary compensation to participants are exempt from this requirement. Many studies that offer a free ‘thank you’ such as a digital certificate or cute presentation of the child’s data or video have been conducted successfully on CHS, so this is certainly an option to consider if your institution has an absolute ban on collecting visual or other corroborating evidence about your remote participants.
Option 2: The standard Lookit video consent process¶
The most straightforward way to meet this requirement, which the majority of studies are currently using, is the Lookit video consent form, which captures webcam video of the parent/guardian stating that they agree to participate in the study. In your compensation description, you can state that you require the child to be visible in the consent video, or you can use other video data that you collect during the session.
If you are running an external, asynchronous study (Bring-your-own Study Link), the easiest way to meet this requirement is to prepare a ‘hybrid’ study that uses the Lookit experiment builder to present the consent form, and then redirects to your external study. Here is an example study template that you can copy and use. There is also the option to record video of the entire session by using the iframe method to display your experiment in the same tab, without leaving the Children Helping Science platform.
Note that you can use this video consent method in place of or in addition to another consent process (e.g. if your institution requires documenting consent on a specific platform.)
Option 3: Live video confirmation via Zoom or similar¶
For external, synchronous studies (Bring-your-own Meetings), the visual confirmation of the participating family and child during the video session satisfies this requirement. As with all study types, you should be checking over the family’s information for consistency prior to releasing payment.
If you are currently running an asynchronous study and don’t want to use the video consent process (Option 2), you could also arrange to have a quick zoom call with families before you release payment. For most lab workflows, it probably makes the most sense to first schedule the zoom call, and then give the study link to participants who pass that check. Make sure to explain how this process will work to families in the study information!
Option 4: Propose something else¶
We understand that the procedures we describe here may not work for every study, or may require you to request a modification from your IRB. We encourage you to think about how to frame this requirement to your IRB, because it may well be considered a small or negligible change from their perspective. For example, you could continue to use whatever consent process you have for your study as being the official consent from your IRB’s perspective, while also having them do the video consent frame on Lookit/CHS (thus, you are not changing what counts as consent for your study, you are merely implementing a platform-required fraud-prevention step before they even get to your study and the consent your study uses).
If you discover that none of the above options is workable for you, we encourage you to think creatively about how else you could meet the requirement to verify that your participants are who they say they are (or consider Option 1, volunteer participants.) It may help to inform your IRB that other methods of identity verification (such as requiring a picture of a driver’s license or a social media account) would constitute a greater risk to families, compared to short webcam video which does not reveal e.g. families’ full names or location information to the researcher. However, if something like the latter is what your IRB will approve, we’re happy to talk about this option with you.
Managing and reporting scam participants¶
The compensation statement¶
The first tool in your toolkit for managing scammers is a clear statement of when and how participants will be compensated.
Here is an example of a compensation statement with some of this language:
After you participate, we’ll email you a $5 Amazon gift code within five days to thank you for your time (only one per child). To be eligible for compensation we ask that you (1) provide a valid consent video (we will show you how!), (2) make sure your child is in the age range specified above and (3) ensure that your child is visible during the recorded videos. Your child does not need to finish the entire study in order to be eligible for compensation.
Reviewing for consent vs. compensation¶
In most labs, there are several things you need to review about each session that comes in. Many items on a ‘quality checklist’ serve multiple functions (a video with no child present is one that both you won’t pay for, and won’t include in your analysis). It is important to make sure that your lab’s workflow is set up to avoid paying participants before you have a chance to check if they should be paid! Because you are required to pay your participants in a timely fashion, this means that you need to be prepared to conduct these quality checks quickly and accurately within your lab.
The specific things you need to check for (including photos of some known people who make many accounts to ‘hit’ especially brand new studies) will change over time, in the eternal race between researchers trying to protect their studies and scammers trying to get fraudulent payments. We don’t want the scammers to know what we know, so information about specific red flags is kept in a separate document that you need to request access to. When you request access, you must include a message with enough information to prove you are a current CHS/Loookit researcher.
It is your responsibility to ensure that everyone who issues payments for your studies has read this CHS/Lookit documentation along with any lab-specific procedures you use has to implement these suggestions. At a minimum, these procedures should:
- Distinguish between ‘consents accepted’ and ‘participants to be paid’ - you will sometimes need to approve consents before you can see information that you use to detect scammers, so make sure that you don’t use the consent queue as your only tool for tracking which participants to pay.
- Detect potential scams (and respond as below) before communicating with those participants - any ‘signs of life’ are an encouragement to continue. If fraudulent participants contact you, messages should be saved but ignored.
- Ensure coordination between lab members, including between different studies - you must be able to detect if the same account is behaving oddly across sessions (the same child appearing under two different names) and across accounts (the same adult appearing under two different accounts.)
- Ensure that potential scams are reported to a single responsible individual in your lab, and to CHS when necessary, as quickly as you can.
Whether you are conducting an internal or external study, the CHS website saves information that you can use to review participants and check for patterns that may indicate spam.
Consent manager: Internal experiments and hybrid experiments that use the Lookit video consent frame can use the Consent Manager to screen for potential signs of bad-faith participation.
In addition to the video, we display information that may be helpful for identifying cases that you need to look into further. For instance, this child’s name is given as ‘fakeamo fake’, which may indicate something is off! (This is an account that Melissa uses for testing.) This table also includes ID values for the user and child, which can be used e.g. to check against a list your lab maintains of known ‘problem’ users. In most cases you will want to use the global IDs (long strings) for monitoring and reporting scammers, but remember that these values must be protected and should not be present in your the versions of the datasets you use for analysis.
See the private document for further details on how you can use the information on the consent screen to detect scammers.
Response data: All experiment types also make response data available that provides basic information about each user, child, and session in your study. Whether your study is internal or external, you should be using this information to confirm the details of each session, and if your study is external, you should compare the data you have from CHS and the data you have from your own study site to check for inconsistencies. See this page for details on how to access and use this information - note that you will need to check a box in order to download a version of the data with sensitive information like global IDs and names, so treat these datasets with caution and care!
Reporting suspected scam participants¶
At least one researcher per experiment should be a member of the Slack channel we use for monitoring for scammers (currently #sept-2023-spam-sessions) - ask for access on the #researchers channel. You should use the spam channel to ask questions about behavior you’re concerned about, and to search past conversations to see if an issue has come up before (e.g. “hats”, “time zones”.) This is also the only channel where it is permitted to share personal information (names, ID strings). CHS staff will occasionally share information about specific problematic accounts that may have participated in your studies. This is the best way to learn from the community about their CHS-specific experiences with scammers!
Use the following process to monitor and report potentially fraudulent participants:
- Lab members in charge of confirming consent or paying participants should be trained to immediately report any red flags to their project leader for review, and to delay paying that participant until the issue is resolved.
- If you (project leader) are not sure whether this is a fraudulent versus just a confused participant, do not pay the participant yet, and ask a question on the scam channel so we can help you to determine the next steps.
- If you are fairly certain about the fake participant/obvious eligibility violation (or if an admin asks you to do so) make a report using this form. To help us process these more quickly, you should also post on the Slack channel to let us know when you submit a report.
- DO NOT compensate the participant until an admin has had a chance to review your case(s). Once you’ve heard back from an admin, you will know whether that participant has been blocked from Lookit, whether they have concluded that the participant should be compensated, or whether there is another outcome needed.
- In your lab/research group, keep a running list of potentially problematic red flags you find in your lab - when it’s an individual or small group causing a problem, the same red flags will tend to repeat!
- If you discover patterns of red flags that are not listed in the private “Rogues Gallery” document, share them with the community on the scam channel so we can all learn to block them more effectively.
Enforcement of scam prevention policies¶
Beginning in December 2023, we will be returning submitted studies that don’t meet the payment verification requirements for revision. Existing studies that don’t meet these criteria are also asked to pause data collection, and may be paused/retracted by CHS staff.
In addition, we will be conducting “white hat” exercises across Lookit/CHS. In other words, there will be a small amount of “fraudulent” activity on CHS arranged by the admins to test whether your studies are effectively detecting these attempts. If you catch one, you should report it exactly as described above, including filling out the form for scam participants.
If you accidentally compensate a white hat attempts, we will of course return the compensation to you if reasonable (e.g., we can easily tell you to re-use a gift code you send; if you are doing something like mailing a children’s book then everyone might agree it is nicer to just donate it to a local charity rather than mailing it back). More importantly, accidentally compensating a white hat attempt will require a description of how you will be changing your procedures to be more resistant to fraud in the future, with confirmation from your lab’s PI that the plan is being implemented. Repeated compensation of white hat attempts may lead to the removal of your study from Lookit/CHS and the possibility that your lab may not be able to post new studies for a while.